Adverbs

This, the other part of speech in the "verb" group, An "adverb" is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or adverb. This part of speech has eight classifications:

  1. Time: now, then, since, ago, afterwards.
  2. Place: here, there, far, near
  3. Degree or Quantity: much, very, rather, half, twice,
  4. Manner: well, badly, wisely, easily
  5. Affirmation and Negation: yes, indeed, not, no
  6. Interrogation: when?, where?, how?, why?
  7. Relative: when, where, how, why

The same word may be placed in more than one classification according to how it is used. The last group are in the same form as adverbs of interrogation but are used also to introduce clauses ("The year when the war began."). It can be argued that words such as "yes" and "no" are not adverbs because they do not modify or qualify verbs, adjectives or adverbs. If the answer to a question such as "Has he come?" is "Yes." then the word "yes" here stands for the sentence "He has come." and it is then called a "sentence adverb" or "sentence word".

Adverbs may be formed in four ways from other parts of speech:

  1. From adjectives: by adding "ly" as in slowly, quickly.
  2. From nouns: in many ways - to-day, aboard, asleep, backwards
  3. From pronouns: here from he, where and why from who
  4. Compound Adverbs: from combining two or more words, sometimes, always, nevertheless.

Other parts of speech can be used as adverbs. Some adverbs are the same in form as adjectives ("he hits hard."), some nouns can be used as adverbs ("He went home."), some verbs can be used as adverbs to modify other verbs ("Bang went the gun.") and some prepositions are in the same form but different in use. When adverbs end in "ly" then comparisons are made by prefixing "more" and "most" as in "quickly", "more quickly", and "most quickly". A few verbs take "er" and "est" to form comparison adverbs such as "soon", "sooner" and "soonest". Others have the same form as adjectives, "little", "less", "least" being examples.

There are many adverb phrases in use:

  1. Time: to this day, at last.
  2. Place: on the hill, in a fix, at home.
  3. Degree: on the whole, to a great extent.
  4. Manner: with a swing, like a bird.
  5. Affirmation and Negation: by all means, not at all.

Adverb phrases, like adjective phrases are formed with the help of prepositions. As with verbs, more can be added to the discussion on adverbs but for present purposes this is sufficient.

Grammar

Sentences

Nouns

Pronouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Adverbs

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Interjections

Punctuation

A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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